Unix man pages find command
In Unix-like and some other operating systems , find is a command-line utility that locates files based on some user -specified criteria and then applies some requested action on each matched object. It initiates a search from a desired starting location and then recursively traversing the nodes directories of a hierarchical structure typically a tree. The possible search criteria include a pattern to match against the filename or a time range to match against the modification time or access time of the file. By default, find returns a list of all files below the current working directory , although users can limit the search to any desired maximum number of levels under the starting directory.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Linux Man Pages Tips and Tricks
SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Learn Find command in 5 MinutesContent:
- Linux and Unix find command tutorial with examples
- Linux find command
- Use the Unix find command to search for files
- Master the command line: How to use man pages
- How to Search Man Pages at the Command Line
- Unix Commands
- Use the Unix man command to read manual pages
- Finding Files
- find(1) - Linux man page
Linux and Unix find command tutorial with examples
A man page short for manual page is a form of software documentation usually found on a Unix or Unix-like operating system. Topics covered include computer programs including library and system calls , formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts.
A user may invoke a man page by issuing the man command. By default, man typically uses a terminal pager program such as more or less to display its output. Because man pages are distributed together with the software they document, they are a more favourable means of documenting software compared to out-of-band documentation like web pages , as there is a higher likelihood for a match between the actual features of the software to the documented ones.
In the first two years of the history of Unix , no documentation existed. The first actual man pages were written by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson at the insistence [ citation needed ] of their manager Doug McIlroy in Aside from the man pages, the Programmer's Manual also accumulated a set of short papers, some of them tutorials e.
Later versions of the documentation imitated the first man pages' terseness. For the Fourth Edition the man pages were formatted using the troff typesetting package  and its set of -man macros which were completely revised between the Sixth and Seventh Editions of the Manual ,  but have since not drastically changed.
At the time, the availability of online documentation through the manual page system was regarded as a great advance. To this day, virtually every Unix command line application comes with a man page, and many Unix users perceive a program's lack of man pages as a sign of low quality; indeed, some projects, such as Debian , go out of their way to write man pages for programs lacking one.
The modern descendants of 4. There was a hidden easter egg in the man-db version of the man command that would cause the command to return "gimme gimme gimme" when run at a reference to the ABBA song Gimme! A Man After Midnight. It was introduced in  but first restricted  and then removed in  after finally being found.
The default format of the man pages is troff , with either the macro package man appearance oriented or mdoc semantic oriented. This makes it possible to typeset a man page into PostScript , PDF , and various other formats for viewing or printing.
It is meant to only support of a subset of troff used in manual pages, specifically those using the mdoc macros. In February , the BSD community saw a new open source mdoc. For Linux, a man7. Pages are traditionally referred to using the notation "name section ": for example, ftp 1.
The same page name may appear in more than one section of the manual, such as when the names of system calls , user commands , or macro packages coincide. Examples are man 1 and man 7 , or exit 2 and exit 3. The syntax for accessing the non-default manual section varies between different man implementations. On Solaris and illumos, for example, the syntax for reading printf 3C is:. Unix System V uses a similar numbering scheme, except in a different order: . Some sections are further subdivided by means of a suffix; for example, in some systems, section 3C is for C library calls, 3M is for the math library, and so on.
A consequence of this is that section 8 system administration commands is sometimes relegated to the 1M subsection of the main commands section. Some subsection suffixes have a general meaning across sections:. Some versions of man cache the formatted versions of the last several pages viewed.
One form is the cat page , simply piped to the pager for display. All man pages follow a common layout that is optimized for presentation on a simple ASCII text display, possibly without any form of highlighting or font control.
Sections present may include:. Other sections may be present, but these are not well standardized across man pages. Manual pages can be written either in the old man macros, the new doc macros, or a combination of both mandoc.
This information can be used to implement a semantic search for manuals by programs such as mandoc. Although it also includes directives to directly control the styling, it is expected that the specialized macros will cover most of the use-cases. Although man pages are, to troff, text laid out using point Roman type , this distinction is usually moot because man pages are viewed in the terminal TTY instead of laid out on paper.
As a result, the "small font" macro is seldom used. The BSD mandoc however only supports bold and underlined text via the typewriter overstrike-with-backspace sequence, which needs to be translated into ECMA by less. Man pages are usually written in English, but translations into other languages may be available on the system. The GNU man-db and the mandoc man is known to search for localized manual pages under subdirectories.
Few alternatives to man have enjoyed much popularity, with the possible exception of GNU Project's " info " system, an early and simple hypertext system. There is also a third-party effort known as " TLDR pages" that provides simple examples for common use cases, similar to a cheatsheet.
This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL , version 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved BSD Cross Reference. Lay summary. The man utility finds and displays online manual documentation pages. Bell Labs. Retrieved 22 December Originally published in Microsystems 5 11 , November Retrieved 30 January Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 25 December November 3, Retrieved 31 December Ask Ubuntu.
Games and screensavers. System administration commands and daemons. C library header files Unix v6.
Linux find command
The find utility recursively descends the directory hierarchy for each path seeking files that match a Boolean expression written in the primaries specified below. Causes the file information and file type evaluated for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the link, and not the link itself. If the referenced file does not exist, the file information and type is for the link itself.
This document provides examples of the use of many of the most common Unix commands. The first thing to remember about Unix commands is that are case sensitive. For more details on a command see the man page for the command. For example, to see more information about the command rm , enter the command.
Use the Unix find command to search for files
To use the find command, at the Unix prompt, enter:. Leave the double quotes in. The find command will begin looking in the starting directory you specify and proceed to search through all accessible subdirectories. You may specify more than one starting directory for searching. By default, multiple options are joined by "and". You may specify "or" with the -o flag and the use of grouped parentheses. To match all files modified more than 7 days ago and accessed more than 30 days ago, use:.
Master the command line: How to use man pages
In Unix , most programs, and many protocols, functions, and file formats, have accompanying manuals. With the man command, you can retrieve the information in the manual and display it as text output on your screen. To use the man command, at the Unix prompt, enter:. Replace topic with the name of the manual item about which you want more information.
Command line users are undoubtedly familiar with man pages, or manual pages, that contain details, help , and documentation to specified commands and functions. Referencing a man page can be essential when trying to learn proper syntax or how a command works, but with how large some manual pages are it can be a real drag to scroll through the entire man page to try and find a relevant portion. Note the flag is a capital -K, the string can be anything. Any matches to the syntax in the current man page will be highlighted.
How to Search Man Pages at the Command Line
Section-num : Since a manual is divided into multiple sections so this option is used to display only a specific section of a manual. So this option gives the section in which the given command is present. In this example you can move through the manual pages sections i.
While they're not all well-advertised, there are actually a variety of means of getting help under Unix. Man pages correspond to online manuals for programs, file formats, functions, system calls, and so forth. If you've never read one before, the best way to start is by typing 'man man ' at the command line. Of course, while man pages are a vast improvement over the online documentation of most other OSes, they suffer from many failings: some people don't like to read text on the screen not very helpful unless you already know what to look for not always accessible even when present not always present, especially under Linux frequently hard to read, as they try to be authoritative and are therefore often too technical for new users frequently out of date That said, they're still better and more comprehensive than the alternatives. We'll try to address the first three failings in this document.
A man page short for manual page is a form of software documentation usually found on a Unix or Unix-like operating system. Topics covered include computer programs including library and system calls , formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts. A user may invoke a man page by issuing the man command. By default, man typically uses a terminal pager program such as more or less to display its output. Because man pages are distributed together with the software they document, they are a more favourable means of documenting software compared to out-of-band documentation like web pages , as there is a higher likelihood for a match between the actual features of the software to the documented ones. In the first two years of the history of Unix , no documentation existed. The first actual man pages were written by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson at the insistence [ citation needed ] of their manager Doug McIlroy in
Use the Unix man command to read manual pages
On Unix-like operating systems, the find command searches for files and directories in a file system. Within each directory tree specified by the given path s, it evaluates the given expression from left to right, according to the rules of precedence see " Operators ", below until the outcome is known. At that point find moves on to the next path until all path s have been searched. It can be used on its own to locate files, or in conjunction with other programs to perform operations on those files.
Search a folder hierarchy for filename s that meet a desired criteria: Name, Size, File Type - see examples. GNU find searches the directory tree rooted at each given file name by evaluating the given expression from left to right, according to the rules of precedence see Operators , until the outcome is known the left hand side is false for AND operations, true for OR , at which point find moves on to the next file name. The -H, -L and -P options control the treatment of symbolic links.
find(1) - Linux man page